Provenance

Central to the consideration of the Benin objects currently dispersed across at least 131 institutions is the question of their ties to the British colonial military campaign on Benin City, or the ‘punitive expedition’ of 1897, led by British Navy forces and members of the Niger Coast Protectorate, which caused the wide-scale looting of the royal palace and the city. Read more
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897
1424
Objects
DealerDonor
931
Objects
DealerTrading company
417
Objects
DealerTrader
309
Objects
Anthropologist
304
Objects
DealerCollector
288
Objects
CollectorDealerDonor
235
Objects
Patron
229
Objects
Collector
205
Objects
CollectorAnthropologist
204
Objects
Auction House
201
Objects
AnthropologistCollected in the fieldColonial administrator
197
Objects
Government agency
169
Objects
AnthropologistCollector
159
Objects
Colonial administratorCollector
126
Objects
IntermediaryDealer
97
Objects
DealerCollector
90
Objects
EthnographerCuratorIntermediary
88
Objects
DealerCollector
88
Objects
DiplomatColonial administratorCollectorDealer
84
Objects
Auction House
82
Objects
Dealer
77
Objects
Member of the Royal Court of Benin
77
Objects
DealerCompany
77
Objects
Patron
73
Objects
Collector
72
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897SoldierCollected in the field
70
Objects
Foundation
65
Objects
EthnographerAnthropologistArchaeologistCuratorDonor
65
Objects
SoldierMember of the Royal NavyMember of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Collected in the field
60
Objects
ArchaeologistSoldierCollector
59
Objects
EthnographerCollected in the fieldAnthropologist
56
Objects
PatronFoundation
53
Objects
CollectorColonial administratorCollected in the field
47
Objects
Curator
46
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Collected in the fieldMember of the Niger Coast Protectorate Force (NCPF)
44
Objects
CuratorCollectorFamily member of a participant in the British expedition on Benin
40
Objects
Collector
40
Objects
TraderDealer
40
Objects
40
Objects
Trading company
40
Objects
Foundation
39
Objects
CuratorEthnographerCollectorAnthropologist
37
Objects
ArchaeologistDonor
37
Objects
CollectorDealer
35
Objects
Museum
34
Objects
Museum
32
Objects
CollectorDealer
31
Objects
Donor
30
Objects
Dealer
30
Objects
Auction House
30
Objects
Archaeologist
29
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Member of the Niger Coast Protectorate Force (NCPF)Collected in the fieldColonial administrator
28
Objects
Auction House
28
Objects
27
Objects
EthnographerExplorerCollected in the field
27
Objects
Donor
27
Objects
Dealer
26
Objects
Dealer
25
Objects
EthnographerCollectorCollected in the fieldExplorer
23
Objects
DealerIntermediary
23
Objects
SoldierMember of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Collected in the field
23
Objects
Government agency
23
Objects
Collector
22
Objects
Auction House
22
Objects
CollectorDonor
21
Objects
CollectorDealer
21
Objects
Collected in the field
20
Objects
DealerCollectorIntermediary
20
Objects
CollectorDealer
20
Objects
AnthropologistArchaeologistDonor
20
Objects
CollectorDealer
19
Objects
Collector
18
Objects
Auction House
18
Objects
Dealer
18
Objects
Dealer
18
Objects
Collected in the fieldMember of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Soldier
18
Objects
Curator
17
Objects
Collected in the fieldCollectorColonial administrator
17
Objects
16
Objects
Dealer
16
Objects
CollectorDonor
16
Objects
DealerTrader
16
Objects
Member of the Royal NavyFamily member of a participant in the British expedition on Benin
16
Objects
CollectorCollected in the fieldDealer
15
Objects
Private collection
15
Objects
14
Objects
Intermediary
13
Objects
TraderDonor
13
Objects
CollectorDealer
12
Objects
Museum
12
Objects
CollectorDonor
12
Objects
Auction House
12
Objects
Collected in the fieldColonial administrator
11
Objects
Donor
11
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Member of the Royal Navy
11
Objects
Archaeologist
11
Objects
Family member of a participant in the British expedition on Benin
11
Objects
Collector
10
Objects
AnthropologistCollector
10
Objects
Dealer
10
Objects
Foundation
10
Objects
Museum
10
Objects
Collector
10
Objects
Dealer
10
Objects
Journalist
10
Objects
Donor
10
Objects
Dealer
9
Objects
Donor
9
Objects
Trader
9
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897
9
Objects
9
Objects
9
Objects
DonorFamily member of a participant in the British expedition on Benin
9
Objects
Family member of a participant in the British expedition on Benin
9
Objects
CollectorPatron
9
Objects
AnthropologistCuratorIntermediaryEthnographer
8
Objects
Private collectionCompany
8
Objects
Dealer
8
Objects
CollectorPatron
8
Objects
Collected in the fieldMember of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897TraderCollector
8
Objects
Government agencyMuseum
8
Objects
Shipping agentIntermediary
8
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Colonial administratorCollected in the field
8
Objects
CollectorDonor
8
Objects
Donor
8
Objects
CollectorDonor
8
Objects
SoldierCollectorColonial administratorDonorMember of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897
8
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Member of the Royal NavyCollected in the field
8
Objects
SoldierMember of the Royal NavyCollected in the field
8
Objects
Shipping company
8
Objects
Patron
7
Objects
DonorIntermediaryCollected in the field
7
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Member of the Royal NavyCollected in the field
7
Objects
CollectorPatron
7
Objects
CollectorPatron
7
Objects
Dealer
7
Objects
Donor
7
Objects
Auction House
7
Objects
Dealer
7
Objects
ArchaeologistCuratorDonor
7
Objects
Dealer
7
Objects
Dealer
7
Objects
CollectorDonor
7
Objects
Collector
7
Objects
FoundationPatron
6
Objects
DealerCollected in the field
6
Objects
NaturalistCollector
6
Objects
Dealer
6
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Collected in the fieldMember of the Niger Coast Protectorate Force (NCPF)Soldier
6
Objects
Ethnographer
6
Objects
Dealer
6
Objects
Trading company
6
Objects
Dealer
6
Objects
Dealer
6
Objects
Family member of a participant in the British expedition on Benin
6
Objects
CollectorCollected in the field
6
Objects
Family member of a participant in the British expedition on Benin
6
Objects
Dealer
6
Objects
BotanistExplorerIntermediary
6
Objects
CollectorCuratorDonor
6
Objects
Artist
6
Objects
Collector
6
Objects
DealerCollector
6
Objects
Collector
6
Objects
Government agency
6
Objects
PatronCompany
6
Objects
Collector
5
Objects
DealerCollector
5
Objects
Collector
5
Objects
Collector
5
Objects
Curator
5
Objects
CollectorCuratorDealerPatron
5
Objects
Curator
5
Objects
CollectorCuratorDonorArchaeologist
5
Objects
Collector
5
Objects
DealerCollectorCollected in the field
5
Objects
5
Objects
Collected in the fieldMember of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897SoldierMember of the Niger Coast Protectorate Force (NCPF)
5
Objects
CollectorDealer
5
Objects
CollectorDonor
5
Objects
5
Objects
Collected in the fieldMember of the Royal Navy
5
Objects
Patron
4
Objects
4
Objects
Dealer
4
Objects
Trader
4
Objects
Dealer
4
Objects
CollectorAnthropologistEthnographer
4
Objects
Dealer
4
Objects
ExplorerEthnographerCollector
4
Objects
PatronDonor
4
Objects
ArchaeologistCuratorIntermediary
4
Objects
DealerIntermediary
4
Objects
4
Objects
Collector
4
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897SoldierCollected in the field
4
Objects
CollectorDealer
4
Objects
Collector
4
Objects
Dealer
4
Objects
Foundation
4
Objects
Collector
4
Objects
Dealer
4
Objects
Archaeologist
4
Objects
CollectorDonor
4
Objects
DealerTrader
4
Objects
Collector
4
Objects
Collected in the fieldSoldier
4
Objects
Government agency
4
Objects
Dealer
4
Objects
Dealer
4
Objects
CollectorDonor
3
Objects
DealerCollector
3
Objects
Art historianEthnographerCollected in the field
3
Objects
Collector
3
Objects
Trader
3
Objects
3
Objects
FoundationPatron
3
Objects
CollectorDonor
3
Objects
Art historianCollector
3
Objects
CollectorPatron
3
Objects
Auction House
3
Objects
Member of the Royal Court of Benin
3
Objects
Member of the Royal Court of Benin
3
Objects
CuratorCollector
3
Objects
CollectorDonor
3
Objects
Dealer
3
Objects
TraderDealer
3
Objects
DealerTrader
3
Objects
CollectorMissionaryCollected in the field
3
Objects
CollectorCurator
3
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Member of the Niger Coast Protectorate Force (NCPF)
3
Objects
Dealer
3
Objects
CollectorSoldier
3
Objects
Donor
3
Objects
Colonial administratorCollector
3
Objects
Donor
3
Objects
Art historian
3
Objects
SoldierMember of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Collected in the fieldMember of the Niger Coast Protectorate Force (NCPF)
3
Objects
DealerCollector
3
Objects
Dealer
3
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Colonial administratorCollected in the fieldSoldierMember of the Niger Coast Protectorate Force (NCPF)
3
Objects
CollectorColonial administratorCollected in the field
3
Objects
Dealer
3
Objects
EthnographerCurator
3
Objects
Government agency
3
Objects
CuratorCollector
3
Objects
Family member of a participant in the British expedition on Benin
3
Objects
3
Objects
CollectorDonor
3
Objects
CollectorDonor
3
Objects
Member of the Royal NavyMember of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Collected in the field
3
Objects
Colonial administratorCollectorDonorCollected in the field
3
Objects
3
Objects
3
Objects
Dealer
3
Objects
Curator
3
Objects
Curator
3
Objects
Donor
2
Objects
CollectorDealer
2
Objects
DealerIntermediary
2
Objects
DonorCuratorAnthropologist
2
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Collected in the field
2
Objects
Member of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897SoldierCollected in the field
2
Objects
Member of the Royal NavyMember of the British Colonial Military Campaign on Benin, February 1897Collected in the field
2
Objects
CollectorPatron
2
Objects
Collector
2
Objects
DealerTrader
2
Objects
CollectorDonor
2
Objects
AnthropologistCollectorColonial administratorCollected in the fieldBotanist
2
Objects
2
Objects
Collector
2
Objects
DonorCollector
2
Objects
Dealer
2
Objects
CollectorDonor
2
Objects
Dealer
2
Objects
CollectorDonor
2
Objects
Dealer
2
Objects
Naturalist
2
Objects
Collector
2
Objects
2
Objects
CollectorDonor
2
Objects
Auction House
2
Objects
Patron
2
Objects
Dealer
2
Objects
2
Objects
CollectorPatron
2
Objects
2
Objects
2
Objects
2
Objects
Dealer
2
Objects
AnthropologistArchaeologistDonor
2
Objects
FoundationPatron
2
Objects
Collector
2
Objects
CollectorCurator
2
Objects
Art historianCollectorDonorEthnographer
2
Objects
Collector
2
Objects
Dealer
2
Objects
2
Objects
2
Objects
CollectorPatronDonor
2
Objects
CollectorDonor
2
Objects
Jewelry designer
2
Objects
DonorCollected in the field
2
Objects
Colonial administrator
2
Objects
EthnographerCurator
2
Objects
Collector
2
Objects
Collector
2
Objects
Dealer
2
Objects
CollectorDealer
2
Objects
DonorCollector
2
Objects
2
Objects
Anthropologist
2
Objects
Foundation
2
Objects
Trader
2
Objects
DealerDonor
2
Objects
ExplorerColonial administrator
2
Objects
FoundationPatron
2
Objects
Donor
2
Objects
AnthropologistColonial administrator
2
Objects
Foundation
2
Objects
Member of the Royal Court of Benin
2
Objects